The Western Interconnection Regional Advisory Body (“WIRAB”) submitted advice to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”) on its 2016 Notice of Inquiry (“NOI”) on Essential Reliability Services and the Evolving Bulk-Power System – Primary Frequency Response (Docket No.: RM16-6). Primary frequency response (“PFR”) is crucial in the reliable operation of the electric grid. With the rapidly changing resource mix in the West and the rest of the country, there is a concern that there may not be enough PFR in the future to protect the system in the case of a large system disturbance. In its advice, WIRAB recommended FERC to: continue to study the needs of PFR under future scenarios, require new generators to have PFR capability, require default control settings for generators, allow resources to be curtailed in real-time if there is a shortage of PFR, and incentivize fast frequency response.